As we known medicines are advised by doctors based on the severity of the Crones disease symptoms and the area of the digestive tract where inflammation is taking place. No medicine should be taken without a doctor’s permission and if any allergic reactions, like skin rash, occurs then intake of the medicine should be stopped instantly and a doctor should be consulted immediately.
Moderate to severe Crones symptoms include severe abdominal (belly) cramp, severe diarrhea with blood, weight loss, fever, nausea or vomiting, fistulas (abnormal tube-like passage connecting one organ or intestine with another structure), anal fissures (painful ulcer sore), bloating (abnormal swelling of abdominal region), malabsorption (insufficient absorption of nutrients from small intestine) leading to malnutrition and dehydration, feeling confused and disoriented, mouth ulcers, skin disorders, eye inflammation, anemia, and arthritis.
Anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly corticosteroids, are prescribed for treatment of moderate to severe Crones disease symptoms of inflammation found anywhere in the body of Crones patients. These drugs reduce inflammation, relief inflammatory pain in the abdomen, eye, mouth and skin and prevent further possible flare-up of Crones disease.
Corticosteroids: Some corticosteroid drugs are:
- Prednisone (Prednisone Intensol®, Deltasone®, Liquid Pred®);
- Hydrocortisone (Hydrocortone®, Cortef®);
- Dexamethasone (Hexadrol®, Decadron®, Dexasone®, Diodex®, Maxidex®);
- Cortisone (Adreson®, Altesona®, Cortistab®, Cortate®, Cortison Ciba®, Cortison Nycomed®),
- Betamethasone (Diprolene®, GentaVed®, Lotrisone®, Diprolene AF®);
- Triamcinolone (Kenacort®, Aristocort®, and Atolone®);
- Budesonide (Pulmicort Turbuhaler®, Pulmicort Respules®, Pulmicort Flexhaler®, Entocort EC®);
- Mometasone furoate (Nasonex®, Elocon® Asmanex®, Momexin®).
Side effects include puffed up face, increase in facial hair, night sweats, insomnia and restlessness. Other serious side effects include high blood pressure, diabetes, glaucoma, osteoporosis and increase in susceptibility to infections. Long-term use can lead to retarded growth in children. Corticosteriods are short-term (3 to 4 months) systemic medication and are used to initiate remission (inactive stage of a chronic disease).
Immune system suppressors:
These drugs reduce inflammation by suppressing the immune system response in the intestine. Some of these types of drugs are infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, methotrexate, cyclosporine and natalizumab
Infliximab (Remicade®): Both adults and children can take this drug. It is used to treat moderate to severe symptoms. Doctors prescribe this drug right after diagnosis and if the patient has chances of developing a fistula. It neutralizes a protein called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that is responsible for activating immune system response in intestine. People suffering from cancer or have a history of cancer or with heart failure or with multiple sclerosis are prohibited from taking this medication.
Adalimumab (Humira®): Function of this drug is similar to that of infliximab. It is prescribed as soon as the patient is diagnosed with Crohnâ€™s disease and show risks of fistula formation.
Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia®): This drug inhibits the TNF and reduces inflammation. Common side effects include headache, abdominal pain, nausea, infections in the upper respiratory tract such as tuberculosis and reactions at the site of injection.
Methotrexate (Rheumatrex®): This drug is recommended to Crohn’s patient when they no longer respond well to other types of medication. Normally this drud is used to treat cancer, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Short-term side effects include nausea, fatigue and diarrhea. In rare cases it can cause potentially fatal pneumonia. Long-term use can result in scarring of the liver and sometimes to cancer.
Cyclosporine (Gengraf®, Neoral®, Sandimmune®): this potent drug is given for healing Crohns disease symptom related fistulas. It is not a long-term drug. Side-effects include life-threatening infections, seizures, liver and kidney damage. It is prescribed only when other mecidines have failed to act.
Natalizumab (Tysabri®): This drug blocks the integrins (particular immune cell molecules) with the cells of the intestinal walls and thus reduces severe inflammation. This drug can cause multifocal leukoencephalopathy which is a unique and extremely risky brain infection that can even result in death of the patient. That is why when taking this drug, the Crohn’s patient is closely monitored and kept under certain restrictions.
In moderate to severe conditions of Crones disease symptoms special diet is feed to the Crohn’s patient through a feeding tube (enteral nutrition) or nutrients are injected into vein (parenteral nutrition) in order to treat the disease. This helps to keep a normal nutritional content in the body and promotes healing of the inflamed bowel. This special Crones diet contains low-fiber content and is particularly recommended by doctors when the Crones patient is suffering from bowel constriction.
Iron supplements: If chronic bleeding of the intestine is observed then iron deficiency takes place leading to anemia. In such situation iron supplements are given to prevent anemia and to keep iron level in blood normal.
Vitamin B-12 shots(Cobal®, Cyanoject®, Cyomin®, Vibal®): This vitamin is vital for normal growth and development in children; for proper functioning of nerve and for prevention of anemia. This vitamin is absorbed into the body through terminal region of the small intestine (ileum). If ileum is inflammated than vitamin B-12 deficiency takes place. To overcome this problem vitamin B-12 injections are given to the patient.
Calcium and vitamin D supplements: Brand names of this type drugs are Citracal + D, OS-Cal 500 + D, Caltrate 600 + D, Cal-Citrate Plus Vitamin D, Calcium + D, Citracal Ultradense Calcium Citrate Petite w/Vit D, and Citracal Calcium Citrate Petites with Vitamin D. The patients suffering from chronic Crones disease symptoms have deficiency of calcium and vitamin D in their diet mainly because of severe diarrhea. Calcium and vitamin D help prevent osteoporosis.